Introduction to MICROBIALS

Tiny but Mighty

Microbes, specifically bacteria and fungi, affect nearly all aspects of our world. Microbes can:

  • break down nutrients in the soil
  • degrade hydrocarbons
  • recycle waste in aquaculture systems
  • aid the digestion process in animals and humans

What are Microbes?

Microbes are tiny, living, single-celled microorganisms that are ubiquitous in nature; they can be found in water, soil, and the air we breathe. While typically depicted as the culprits of disease and foodborne illness, the vast majority of microbes actually pose no harm to humans. In fact, microbes play critical roles in many biological and ecological processes and are essential for life as we know it.

As the longest living things on our planet, microbes have co-evolved along-side each other, plants, animals and humans forging significant synergistic relationships with the environment around them. These synergistic relationships have led to microbes existing in a wide variety of habitats from the frozen tundra to the tropical rainforest. Because of the diversity of habitation, microbes possess vast metabolic and genetic diversity that can serve as the toolkit for biotechnology. So, although small in size, microbes are arguably the most important living organisms that can address some of the world’s biggest challenges.

Microbes for Plants

  • Microbes perform the heavy lifting in decomposition of dead organic matter into nutrients that other forms of life depend on
  • Microbes produce a wide range of enzymes and metabolites to support soil health
  • Microbes provide legumes with a useable form of nitrogen via enzymatic conversion of atmospheric nitrogen

Microbes for Animals

  • Microbes efficiently convert food into energy through rumen fermentation

Microbes for Humans

  • Microbes reside in and on our bodies and help shape our immune system
  • Microbes can be used to create foods and beverages such as cheeses, bread, sauerkraut, beer, wine, and kombucha

Microbes for a Better World

  • Microbes break down hydrocarbons to clean up contaminated soil and groundwater
  • Microbes are a resource for scientific advancements to address health, agricultural and environmental challenges

Bacillus Microbes

Bacillus are gram-positive, spore-forming bacteria that are metabolically diverse. Bacillus are naturally stable in harsh conditions due their spore coat. Metabolic diversity makes Bacillus well suited for a variety of applications across the life sciences.

At BIO-CAT Microbials, we utilize the natural advantages Bacillus possesses to create solutions to improve the world around us.

References

Metchnikoff E. The Prolongation of Life. (Mitchell PC, ed.). G. P. Putnam’s Sons; 1908.
Hill C, Guarner F, Reid G, et al. Expert consensus document: The international scientific association for probiotics and prebiotics consensus statement on the scope and appropriate use of the term probiotic. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014;11(8):506-514.
Plaza-Diaz J, Ruiz-Ojeda FJ, Gil-Campos M, et al. Mechanisms of action of probiotics. Adv Nutr. 2019;10(Suppl 1):S49-S66.
Sanders ME, Merenstein DJ, Reid G, et al. Probiotics and prebiotics in intestinal health and disease: from biology to the clinic. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019;16(10):605-616.
Tam NKM, Uyen NQ, Hong HA, et al. The intestinal life cycle of Bacillus subtilis and close relatives. J Bacteriol. 2006;188(7):2692-2700.
Hong HA, Khaneja R, Tam NMK, et al. Bacillus subtilis isolated from the human gastrointestinal tract. Res Microbiol. 2009;160(2):134-143.
Fakhry S, Sorrentini I, Ricca E, et al. Characterization of spore forming Bacilli isolated from the human gastrointestinal tract. J Appl Microbiol. 2008;105(6):2178-2186.
Hong HA, To E, Fakhry S, et al. Defining the natural habitat of Bacillus spore-formers. Res Microbiol. 2009;160(6):375-379.
Hoyles L, Honda H, Logan NA, et al. Recognition of greater diversity of Bacillus species and related bacteria in human faeces. Res Microbiol. 2012;163(1):3-13.
Shurtleff W, and Aoyagi A. History of Natto and Its Relatives. Soyinfo Center; 2012.
Sorokulova IB, Pinchuk I V., Denayrolles M, et al. The safety of two Bacillus probiotic strains for human use. Dig Dis Sci. 2008;53(4):954-963.
Lee NK, Kim WS, and Paik HD. Bacillus strains as human probiotics: characterization, safety, microbiome, and probiotic carrier. Food Sci Biotechnol. 2019;28(5):1297-1305.
Jeon HL, Lee NK, Yang SJ, et al. Probiotic characterization of Bacillus subtilis P223 isolated from kimchi. Food Sci Biotechnol. 2017;26(6):1641-1648.
Kotb E. Purification and partial characterization of serine fibrinolytic enzyme from Bacillus megaterium KSK-07 isolated from kishk, a traditional Egyptian fermented food. Appl Biochem Microbiol. 2015;51(1):34-43.
Chantawannakul P, Oncharoen A, Klanbut K, et al. Characterization of proteases of Bacillus subtilis strain 38 isolated from traditionally fermented soybean in Northern Thailand. ScienceAsia. 2002;28(3):241-245.
Inatsu Y, Nakamura N, Yuriko Y, et al. Characterization of Bacillus subtilis strains in Thua nao, a traditional fermented soybean food in northern Thailand. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2006;43(3):237-242.
Penet C, Kramer R, Little R, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study evaluating the efficacy of Bacillus subtilis MB40 to reduce abdominal discomfort, gas, and bloating. Altern Ther Health Med. 2019;25(12).
Spears JL, Kramer R, Nikiforovo AI, et al. Safety assessment of Bacillus subtilis MB40 for probiotic use in foods and dietary supplements. Online: https://bcmicrobials.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/BCM-MB40-Manuscript-Final-Draft-200205.pdf.
Gebrechristos S, and Spears JL. BIO-CAT Microbials Data on File.; 2019.
Spears JL, Gebrechristos S, Li Y, et al. BIO-CAT Microbials Data on File.; 2018.

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